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高中英語倒裝句講解


來源:長春大學生家教網 日期:2014-01-11

倒裝句

一、 倒裝句之全部倒裝

  全部倒裝是只將句子中的謂語動詞全部置于主語之前。此結構通常只用與一般現在時和 一般過去時。常見的結構有:

  1)here, there, now, then, thus等副詞置于句首, 謂語動詞常用be, come, go, lie, run.

  There goes the bell.

  Then came the chairman.

  Here is your letter.

  2)表示運動方向的副詞或地點狀語置于句首,謂語表示運動的動詞。

  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.

  Ahead sat an old woman.

  注意:上述全部倒裝的句型結構的主語必須是名詞,如果主語是人稱代詞則不能完全倒裝。例如:Here he comes. Away they went.

 

二、倒裝句之部分倒裝

  部分倒裝是指將謂語的一部分如助動詞或情態倒裝至主語之前。如果句中的謂語沒有助動詞或情態動詞,則需添加助動詞do, does或did,并將其置于主語之前。

  1)句首為否定或半否定的詞語,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。

  Never have I seen such a performance.

  Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.

  Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.

  當Not until引出主從復合句,主句倒裝,從句不倒裝。

  注意: 如否定詞不在句首不倒裝。

  I have never seen such a performance.

  The mother didn‘t leave the room until the child fell asleep.

  典型例題

  1)Why can‘t I smoke here? At no time___ in the meeting-room

  A. is smoking permitted  B. smoking is permitted

  C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit

  答案A. 這是一個倒裝問題。當否定詞語置于句首以表示強調時,其句中的主謂須用倒裝結構。 這些否定詞包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本題的正常語序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

  2)Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.

  A. man did know  B. man know  C. didn‘t man know  D. did man know

  答案D.  看到Not until…的句型,我們知道為一倒裝句,答案在C,D 中選一個。改寫為正常語序為, Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 現在將not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否則意思就變了。

 

三、以否定詞開頭作部分倒裝

  如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than

  Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.

  Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.

  No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.

  典型例題

  No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.

  A. the game began      B. has the game begun

  C. did the game begin    D. had the game begun

  答案D. 以具有否定意義的副詞放在句首時,一般采用倒裝句(謂語前置)。這類表示否定意義的詞有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

  注意:只有當Not only… but also連接兩個分句時,才在第一個分句用倒裝結構。如果置于句首的Not only… but also僅連接兩個并列詞語,不可用倒裝結構。

  Not only you but also I am fond of music.

 

四、so neither nor作部分倒裝

  表示“也”、“也不” 的句子要部分倒裝。

  Tom can speak French. So can Jack.

  If you won‘t go, neither will I.

  典型例題

  -Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?

  -I don‘t know, _____.

  A. nor don‘t I care  B. nor do I care  C. I don’t care neither  D. I don‘t care also

  答案:B. nor為增補意思“也不關心”,因此句子應倒裝。A錯在用 don‘t 再次否定, C neither 用法不對且缺乏連詞。 D缺乏連詞。

  注意: 當so引出的句子用以對上文內容加以證實或肯定時,不可用倒裝結構。意為“的確如此”。

  Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.

  -It‘s raining hard.   -So it is.

 

五、only在句首要倒裝的情況

  Only in this way, can you learn English well.

  Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.

  如果句子為主從復合句,則主句倒裝,從句不倒裝

  Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

 

六、as though 引導的倒裝句

  as / though引導的讓步從句必須將表語或狀語提前 (形容詞, 副詞, 分詞, 實義動詞提前)。

  注意:

  1)句首名詞不能帶任何冠詞。

  2)句首是實義動詞, 其他助動詞放在主語后。如果實義動詞有賓語和狀語,  隨實義動詞一起放在主語之前。

  Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.

  注意:

讓步狀語從句中,有though,although時,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可連用。

考點!!!

考點1; “強調否定狀語的倒裝句”的基本用法

“強調否定狀語的倒裝句”是指為了強調句子中針對全句的否定狀語, 將其置于句首所引起部分倒裝結構。常考的放于句首引起部分倒裝的含有否定意義的狀語有: never, seldom, rarely, little, few, hardly/scarcely ... when ..., no sooner ... than ..., at no time, by no means, no longer, not only ... but also ..., not until, nowhere, neither ... nor ... 等。例如: Never shall I forget this lesson. 我絕對不會忘記這個教訓。// Seldom in all my life have I met such a determined person. 我一生中很少遇見這樣意志堅定的人。// No sooner had we reached the station than the train left. 我們剛到車站, 火車就開了。// No longer will I believe a word you say. 你的話我以后一個字也不相信了。// Not only was Churchill a statesman, but also (he was) a poet.(not only ... but also ... 連接兩個句子時, 前一個句子倒裝, 后一個不倒裝)丘吉爾不僅是一位政治家, 還是一位詩人。// Not until quite recently did I have any idea what a guided missile was like. 直到最近我才知道導彈是個什么樣子。

注意: 如果放在句首的否定狀語只否定主語或句中的副詞, 而不針對全句, 就不用進行倒裝。例如: Not a soul was anywhere visible. 到處見不到一個人。// Hardly anybody believes that. 幾乎沒有人相信那件事。// Not long ago it rained. 不久前下過雨。

[考題1] I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means ____ with my progress. (2006重慶)

A. the teacher is not satisfied B. is the teacher not satisfied

C. the teacher is satisfied D. is the teacher satisfied

[答案] D

[解析]題干中的but表明其后的句子應表示與“I’ve tried very hard to improve my English.”相反的意義, 即“老師并不對我的進步感到滿意”。否定主句的狀語by no means放于句首表示強調時, 主句應進行部分倒裝, 而且不應再在句中加入否定詞not, 據此可以排除A、 B、 C而選出D。

[考題2] Little ____ that we were watching his every move, so he seemed to be going his own way in this business. (2007安徽)

A. he realized B. he didn’t realize

C. didn’t he realize D. did he realize

[答案] D

[解析] 句首作狀語的副詞little本身含有否定意義, 不需另外加not, 由此排除選項B、 C; 由于句首little之后應使用部分倒裝, 由此進一步排除正常語序形式的選項A而選出D。

[考題3] They have a good knowledge of English but little ____ they know about German. (2005天津)

A. have B. did C. had D. do

[答案] D

[解析] 含有否定意義的狀語little(在這里little作副詞)位于分句的句首時, 主句要進行部分倒裝。“they have a good knowledge of English”這一分句采用的是一般現在時, 下劃線處所表示的時態應與此一致, 故應填入do。

[考題4] — Did Linda see the traffic accident?

— No, no sooner ____ than it happened. (2006天津)

A. had she gone B. she had gone

C. has she gone D. she has gone

[答案] A

[解析] hardly/scarcely... when..., no sooner... than... 都表示“一……就……”, 前面的主句通常用過去完成時, 后面的從句通常用一般過去時, 而且當hardly, scarcely或no sooner放于句首時, 前面的主句應采用部分倒裝。

[考題5] Not only ____ interested in football but ____ beginning to show an interest in it. (2002上海春)

A. the teacher himself is; all his students are

B. the teacher himself is; are all his students

C. is the teacher himself; are all his students

D. is the teacher himself; all his students are

[答案] D

[解析] not only... but (also)... 連接兩個并列分句并且包含否定含義的not only放于句首時, not only后的分句要進行部分倒裝, but (also) 后的分句不進行倒裝, 因此本題應選D。

[考題6] Not until all the fish died in the river ____ how serious the pollution was. (1995)

A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized

C. the villagers did realize D. didn’t the villagers realize

[答案] A

[解析] not... until... 表示“直到……才……”, 在為了表示強調而把否定主句的not until提至句首時, 主句要采用倒裝語序(until引導的時間狀語從句不倒裝), 因此本題應選A。

[考題7] Never before ____ in greater need of modern public transport than it is today. (2005上海)

A. has this city been B. this city has been

C. was this city D. this city was

[答案] A

[解析] 否定主句的狀語never before放于句首表示強調時, 主句應進行部分倒裝, 又因為描述的是一個與現在有關, 并對現在有影響的動作, 所以應用現在完成時, 本題應選A。

[考題8] The old couple married for 40 years and never once ____ with each other. (2003)

A. they had quarreled B. they have quarreled

C. have they quarreled D. had they quarreled

[答案] C

[解析] 并列句的后一分句把否定性狀語never once放在了句首表示強調, 該分句應進行部分倒裝, 又因為描述了一個與現在有關, 且對現在有影響的動作, 所以應用現在完成時, 本題應選C。

[考題9] I finally got the job I dreamed about. Never in all my life ____ so happy! (2000北京、 安徽春)

A. did I feel B. I felt    C. I had felt  D. had I felt

[答案] D

[解析] 否定性狀語never in all my life放于句首時, 該句要進行部分倒裝, 又因為需要表示說話人得到夢寐以求的工作之前沒有這么開心過這一“過去的過去”的情況, 下劃線處應采用過去完成時, 所以本題應選D。

[考題10] Never in my wildest dreams ____ these people are living in such poor conditions. (2006安徽)

A. I could imagine B. could I imagine

C. I couldn’t imagine D. couldn’t I imagine

[答案] B

[解析] 否定性狀語never in my wildest dreams放于句首時, 該句要進行部分倒裝, 排除選項C、 D; never本身已經表示否定, 不應再重復使用否定形式, 因此進一步排除D而選出B。

[考題11] I have been living in the United States for twenty years, but seldom ____ so lonely as now. (2007遼寧)

A. have I felt B. I had felt

C. I have felt D. had I felt

[答案] A

[解析] 否定性狀語seldom位于but之后分句的句首, 該分句應該進行部分倒裝, 由此排除選項B、 C; 下劃線所在的分句描述現在的情況而不是描述“過去的過去”, 因此應進一步排除過去完成時形式的選項D而選出A。

 

 考點2: “only+狀語置于句首引起的倒裝句”的基本用法

副詞only置于句首, 強調方式狀語、 條件狀語、 地點狀語、 時間狀語等狀語時, 主句要進行部分倒裝。如果被only所強調的狀語為狀語從句, 該狀語從句不倒裝, 只對主句進行倒裝。例如: Only in a big city was it possible to buy a new wheelchair. 只有在大城市里才能買到新輪椅。// Only when we had studied the data again did we realize that there was a mistake. 只有當我們再次研究了這些數據的時候, 我們才意識到出了一個錯。// Only because there were some cancelled bookings did he get some tickets in the end. 一些預訂被取消了, 他才得以買到了幾張票。

  注意: 如果放于句首的only所修飾的不是狀語時, 該句不用倒裝。例如: Only John can save me. 只有約翰能夠救我。Only some of the children passed the examination. 只有幾個孩子通過了考試。

  [考題1] ____ by keeping down costs will Power Data hold its advantage over other companies. (2006浙江)

  A. Only B. Just C. Still D. Yet

  [答案] A

  [解析] 放于句首的only修飾方式狀語by keeping down costs時, 全句要進行部分倒裝, 而just, still, yet都無此用法。

  [考題2] Only in this way ____ to make improvements in the operating system. (2003上海春)

  A. you can hope B. you did hope

  C. can you hope D. did you hope

  [答案] C

  [解析] only在題干中放于句首并修飾方式狀語in this way, 全句應進行部分倒裝。又由于該句不是介紹過去的情況而是表述現實的一種狀況, 所以不應采用一般過去時, 本題應選C。

  [考題3] ____ can you expect to get a rise. (2001北京、 安徽春)

  A. With hard work B. Although work hard

  C. Only with hard work D. Now that he works hard

  [答案] C

  [解析] 題干中句子的結構顯然為部分倒裝語序, 四個選項中只有C選項修飾方式狀語with hard work的only可以引導倒裝句, 因此本題應選C。

  [考題4] Only when your identity has been checked, ____. (2003上海)

  A. you are allowed in B. you will be allowed in

  C. will you allow in D. will you be allowed in

  [答案] D

  [解析] 放于句首的only修飾when引導的時間狀語從句時, 主句應進行部分倒裝(從句中不進行倒裝)。

  [考題5] Only then ____ how much damage had been caused. (2006陜西)

  A. she realized B. she had realized

  C. had she realized D. did she realize

  [答案] D

  [解析] 放于句首的only修飾時間狀語then時, 主句應進行部分倒裝, 而且主句中“她意識到……”這一過去的動作對應的是“已導致損失”這一發生得更早的動作, 所以下劃線應與后面賓語從句中的過去完成時相呼應, 采用一般過去時的形式, 據此可以分別排除選項A、 B和C而選出D。

考點3: “作狀語的介詞短語放于句首引起的倒裝句”的基本用法

  有時為了強調而將作狀語的介詞短語放在句首, 而將主語放到句末從而形成倒裝, 這種倒裝句中的謂語多為以下不及物動詞come, lie, stand, walk, 且為全部倒裝的形式。例如: Under the big tree was sitting an old farmer. 大樹下坐著一個老農夫。// Along the dusty road came a group of tourists. 一群游客沿著塵土飛揚的路走來。// In the distance could be seen the purple mountains. 在遠處, 可見到紫紅色的群山。

  采用這樣的倒裝形式有時也是出于全句平衡的考慮: 當主語較長時, 為了使句子平衡, 常以作狀語的介詞短語開頭。例如: On the ground lay some air conditioners, which are to be shipped to some other cities. 地上放著一些空調, 它們會被船運到其他城市去。

  [考題1] Just in front of our house ____ with a history of 1,000 years. (2006上海春)

  A. does a tall tree stand B. stands a tall tree

  C. a tall tree is standing D. a tall tree stands

  [答案] B

  [解析] 狀語前置引起全部倒裝, 主語a tall tree要完全放于謂語stands之后。

  [考題2] At the foot of the mountain ____. (2006四川)

  A. a village lie B. lies a village

  C. does a village lie D. lying a village

  [答案] B

  [解析] 狀語前置引起全部倒裝, 主語a village要完全放于謂語lies之后。

  [考題3] In the dark forests ____, some large enough to hold several English towns. (2005遼寧)

  A. stand many lakes B. lie many lakes

  C. many lakes lie D. many lakes stand

  [答案] B

  [解析] 狀語前置引起全部倒裝, 主語many lakes要完全放于謂語lies(stand通常不與lake連用表示“存在”)之后。

考點4: “結果狀語從句對應的so/such位于句首引起的倒裝句”的基本用法

  當“so/such ... that ...”結構中的so, such連同它所直接修飾的成分共同位于句首表示強調時, 主句要進行倒裝(that后面的結果狀語從句不倒裝)。例如: So angry was he that he couldn’t speak. 他憤怒得一句話也說不出來。(so與作表語的形容詞放于句首, 主句呈現全部倒裝的形式) // So fast does he run that he is far ahead of others. 他跑得如此快, 以至于遠遠領先于其他人。(so與修飾謂語run的副詞fast放于句首, 主句呈現部分倒裝的形式) // To such an extent do the parents love their son that they have tried to satisfy every demand of his. 父母倆愛子愛到了如此程度, 以至于盡量滿足他的任何要求。(to such放于句首, 主句呈現部分倒裝的形式)

  [考題1] So difficult ____ it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom for advice. (2006廣東)

  A. I did find B. did I find C. I have found D. have I found

  [答案] B

  [解析] so difficult放于句首要引起主句的倒裝, 結果狀語從句中的“I decided to ask Tom for advice”表明整句話是針對過去的(不強調與現在的關聯), 不宜用現在完成時而應采用一般過去時, 因此本題應選B。

  [考題2] ____ homework did we have to do that we had no time to take a rest. (2006福建)

  A. So much B. Too much C. Too little D. So little

  [答案] A

  [解析] 結果狀語從句中的“we had no time to take a rest”意味著休息時間很少, 應先排除選項C、 D, 又由于放于句首的表語too much不能引起倒裝, 而且意思上也難以與全句融合, 所以進一步排除B。

考點99: “順說倒裝句”的基本用法

“順說倒裝句”是順應前面所出現的表述、 表明另一種類似情況而形成的部分倒裝形式的倒裝句, 其基本結構為“so/neither/nor+助動詞/情態動詞/系動詞be+主語”, 用放在句首的so(針對前面肯定性的內容)或者neither, nor(針對前面否定性的內容)表明與前面所說的情況類似的情況。例如: He can ride a bike, and so can I. 他會騎自行車, 我也會。// The boy died, and a week later, so did his friend. 那男孩死了, 一周后, 他朋友也死了。// Society has changed and so have the people in it. 社會變了, 人也跟著變了。// Tom doesn’t like bananas. Neither/Nor does his wife. 湯姆不喜歡吃香蕉。他妻子也不喜歡。// If you won’t go, neither will I. 如果你不去, 我也不去。

注意: 如果只是重復前面所說的情況, 表示同意或強調(意為“是的, 確實”), so(針對前面肯定性的內容)或者neither, nor(針對前面否定性的內容)引導的句子不用倒裝, 其基本結構為“so/neither/nor+主語+助動詞/情態動詞/系動詞be”(這里的主語應與前面句子的主語一致)。例如: She knows little English, so she does. 她英語懂得不多, 的確如此。// — It was very hot yesterday. 昨天天氣很熱。— So it was. 是很熱。

[考題1] If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, ____.(2007)

A. he will either B. neither will he

C. he neither will D. either he will

[答案] B

[解析] 表示Joe跟他妻子一樣將不出席宴會, 應選用四個選項中倒裝形式的“neither will he”, 選項A、 D不能選是因為“either”表示“也”而不含否定含義。

[考題2] — It’s burning hot today, isn’t it?

— Yes. ____ yesterday. (2006福建)

A. So was it B. So it was C. So it is D. So is it

[答案] A

[解析] 表示昨天的炎熱狀況跟今天的炎熱狀況一樣, 應選用倒裝句的結構, 由此先排除選項B和C, 又由于描述昨天的情況應用一般過去時而不是一般現在時, 應進一步排除D而選出A。

[考題3] — Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother?

— I don’t know, ____. (1991)

A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care

C. I don’t care neither D. I don’t care also

[答案] B

[解析] 在否定句表示“也”要用either(表示此意時通常放于句末), 在肯定句中表示“也”則用too(較為通俗, 表示此意時通常放于句末)或also(較為莊重, 使用時通常放于句中), 本題下劃線對應于否定句, 不能用also, 所以首先排除了選項D; neither, nor表示“也不”, 本身包含否定意義, 不能與don’t連用, 所以進一步排除選項A、 C而選出B。本題中, nor引導的部分倒裝的倒裝句表示前面的否定性的內容也適合于另一個人, 其帶上了謂語部分的實義動詞care(若“順說倒裝句”中謂語部分的實義動詞與前一句子謂語部分的實義動詞相同, 則一般省略掉該倒裝句中謂語部分的實義動詞)。

[考題4] — You forgot your purse when you went out.

— Good heavens, ____. (2002上海)

A. so did I B. so I did C. I did so D. I so did

[答案] B

[解析] 重復前面表述的同一種情況, 表示強調時, so引導的句子不進行倒裝。

[考題5] — Well. I do think the rabbit is a beautiful, gentle animal which can run very fast.

— ____.(2005遼寧)

A. So it is B. So is it C. So does it D. So it does

[答案] A

[解析] 肯定前一句話中的賓語從句“the rabbit is a beautiful, gentle animal”, so引導的句子不進行倒裝, 而且so引導的句子中謂語動詞要與該賓語從句中的謂語動詞相一致。

[考題6] — My room gets very cold at night.

— ____.(2007江蘇)

A. So is mine B. So mine is

C. So does mine D. So mine does

[答案] C

[解析] 下劃線處肯定對方所述情況、 表示“我的房間的確如此”, 應采用不倒裝的形式, 而且其謂語動詞形式應該與對方所說陳述句的謂語動詞形式一致。

本章補充強化訓練題

1. Never ____ time come back again.

A. will you lose B. will lost

C. have I lost D. am I losing

2. Not until he arrived home ____ that his wallet had been stolen.

A. he had found B. he found

C. did he find D. had he founded

3. Not until ____ home ____ his parents had been ill for three days.

A. he got; he knew B. did he get; he knew

C. he got; did he know D. did he get; did he know

4. Not for a moment ____ the truth of your story.

A. he has doubted B. he doubted

C. had he doubted D. did he doubt

5. Hardly ____ got to the airport ____ the plane took off.

A. they had; than B. had they; than

C. had they; when D. did they; when

6. No sooner ____ than he realized that he should have remained silent.

A. had the words been spoken B. the words had spoken

C. the words had been spoken D. had the words spoken

7. Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else ____ such a beautiful palace.

A. can you find B. you could find

C. you can find D. could you find

8. Of the making of good books there is no end; neither ____ any end to their influence on man’s lives.

A. there is B. there are C. is there D. are there

9. — He said he enjoyed the quiet life in the countryside.

— ____ and ____.

A. So did he, so did I B. So he did, so did I

C. He did so, I did so D. Did he so, so I did

10. — I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible!

— ____.

A. Nor am I B. Neither would I

C. Same with me D. So do I

11. — The fish smells terrible!

— ____.

A. So does it B. So it does

C. So does the fish D. So it is

12. I failed in the final examination last term and only then ____ the importance of studies.

A. I realized B. I had realized

C. had I realized D. did I realize

13. So ____ that no fish can live in it.

A. shallow is the lake B. shallow the lake is

C. the lake is shallow D. is the shallow

 

本章補充強化訓練題參考答案

1. B 2. C 3. C 4. D 5. C 6. A 7. A 8. C 9. B 10. B

11. B 12. D 13. A

注意事項!

1.         not only…but also…前后連接兩個句子時,not only后的句子要用部分倒裝,但but also后的分句不用倒裝。

2.         按英語習慣,當never, hardly, seldom, little, few, not until, not, no, no sooner, by no means, under no circumstances等否定詞置于句首時,其后要用部分

3.         否定或近似否定副詞(往往是時間或頻度副詞,如never, rarely, seldom),或是具有否定作用的副詞,如 little, on no account 等。但是,當這種副詞不在句首時,當然應該用正常詞序另外,有些含有否定意義的介詞短語置于句首時,其后也要用倒裝。(In no caseOn no condition On no accounts In [Under] no circumstances無論如何、No way )

4.         地點狀語后面如有表示位置的動詞 (如lie, live, sit, stand) 或轉移的動詞 (如come, go, rise),用作主語的名詞可以放在動詞之后。

編輯者:長春大學生家教網(www.ppkkda.icu)



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